Compiled by MCSE
Microsoft Certified
Systems Engineer
Compiled by MCSE
Microsoft Certified
Systems Engineer
PixSavers, Photo Retouching, Shoreline, WA
2D vector formats (misc. 2D vector formats)

  • AI (Adobe Illustrator)
  • CDR (CorelDRAW)
  • GEM metafiles; a Graphics Layout Engine
  • HPGL for Hewlett-Packard plotters and some printers
  • HVIF (Haiku Vector Icon Format)
  • NAPLPS (North American Presentation Protocol)
  • ODG (Open Document Graphics)
  • POV-Ray markup language
  • PSTricks and PGF/TikZ creates graphics in TeX.
  • ReGIS used by DEC computer terminals
  • VML (Vector Markup Language)
  • WMF/EMF (Windows Metafile / Enhanced Metafile)
  • XPS (XML Paper Specification)
  • XAML User  language for vector graphic images
Graphic File Formats - Conversions and Containers

  • DNG (Digital Negative Graphics)  Adobe's standard RAW converter;  Converts (compressed) 16 bit RAW from any
    camera to 8 bit TIFF for compatible printing. -COPY LINK-->  https://helpx.adobe.com/photoshop/using/adobe-dng-
    converter.html   Adobe recommends DNG to convert RAW to TIFF files, and convert to 8bit in order for a printer to print.

  • GIMP* - GHIMP or GNU Image Manipulation Program; a free open-source raster graphics editor for image retouch,
    draws, conversions to formats specialized.

  • Exif (Exchangeable image format) a standard like JFIF and TIFF; incorporated into JPEG, writes in cameras.
    Standardizes exchange of images with image metadata between digital camera editing and image viewing.

  • HEIF (High Efficiency Image File) compressed image container, standard: MPEG-H Part 12 (ISO/IEC 23008-12).  

  • HEVC (High Efficiency Video Coding) intra-coded media specifically stored in HEIF container (MPEG-H part-2).
    It's the new successor to Advanced Video Coding (AVC, "H.264") compression for Blu-ray. (MPEG-4 Part 10)

  • BPG (Better Portable Graphics) a new format, replaces JPEG format when quality or file size is an issue.
    Its main advantages are higher compression ratio.  Files are much smaller than JPEG for similar quality.

  • SVG (Scalable Vector Graphics) an open standard created and developed by the WWW Consortium to address the
    need for a versatile, scriptable and all-purpose vector format for the web. SVG format doesn't have a compression.
    But due to the textual nature of XML, an SVG graphic can be compressed utilizing programs, for example, Gzip.
    SVG has scripting potential, a key component in interactive web pages that look and act like real applications.

  • Gerber (aka Extended Gerber) developed by Gerber Systems Corp., now Ucamco, is a 2D bi-level image format.
    The de facto standard utilized by printed circuit boards (PCB).  Its software is for high-precision 2D bi-level imaging.

  • CGM (Computer Graphics Metafile) (superceded by SVG and DXF)  for 2D vector graphics, raster graphics, and text.
    It provides graphics data interchange for computer representation of 2D graphical information independent from any
    particular application, system, platform, or device for technical illustration and very technical design principals.

  • .flt - stands for  FiLTer; a file extension used in Adobe Illustrator, PageMaker; a plugin container; not directly viewable

  • Gzip - a file format and app. used for file compression/decompression, developed by Jean-loup Gailly and Mark Adler
    as free software for file compressions used in early Unix computer platform systems.  The G stands for GNU;  

  • GNU - a coding standard with a set of rules and guidelines for writing programs in C language for the GNU system;
    Written by Richard Stallman and staff, the standard is part of the GNU project from the GNU website and free-ware.

  • PIX - PIX file association 3 (alias PIX image)  is a Bitmap image created in the proprietary Alias PIX format; contains a
    header followed by pixels that are run-length encoded in packets; originally used by Alias 3D software, such as Power
    Animater, but is not commonly used anymore.  PIX files can open in Windows.   The PIX file association 1 (Geomatic
    Database files) and PIX association 2 (CAD Raw Image files) can be seen on the web at this URL; copy this link:
    https://fileinfo.com/extension/pix - copy this link into your browser's URL linking.   PIX file is for Windows computers.

  • XIP - Analogous to a .ZIP file which can be digitally signed for integrity - .XIP file format was introduced in OS X 10.9,
    along with Apple's release of Swift Programming Language for Apple computers.   This does not appear in a PC.  

  • PPM portable pixmap;  PBM portable pixmap;  PGM portable graymap;   PBM portable bitmap.

  • PAL  Phase Alternating Line  - a color encoding system for analogue television used in broadcast TV systems;

  • WebP a new open image format that uses both lossless and lossy compression;  designed by Google
    to reduce image file size to speed up website page loading:  Its purpose is to supersede JPEG as the primary
    format for Google photos on the web.  WebP is based on VP8's intra-frame coding, formerly VP7 based on RIFF.

  • VP7 Encoded video format developed by On2 Technologies; designed to encode video quickly and decode video
    in fewer cycles than other compressions, optimized for playback on low-power devices;  Created from WebP.  

  • RIFF - The Resource Interchange File Format (RIFF) is a generic file container for storing data tagged chunks,
    primarily used to store multimedia, sound and video - created for WebP.  

  • WebM - is an open media file format for video streams compressed with VP8 and VP9 (new) video codecs, and its
    audio streams are compressed with Vorbis and Opus audio codecs and WebVTT text tracks.  It's a codec container.  

  • VP8  an open, royalty free video compression by Google, created by On2 Technologies, from VP7.
    It can be multiplexed into the Matroska-based container format, WebM along with Vorbis and Opus audio.
    VP7 is a TruMotion video codec used in Adobe Flash, Flash-Video and JavaFX lossy media codec files.  
    Vorbis is an audio coding format in its software referenced to encoder/decoder for audio compression.  
    Opus is an audio format developed to support Internet audio, mainly used in streaming as a lossy format.

  • VP9 - open and royalty free video coding format developed by Google. VP9 is a successor to VP8 and competes
    with MPEG's High Efficiency Video Coding used on Google's popular video platform, YouTube.

  • WebVTT is a format that provides captions or subtitles for video content, text video descriptions which displays
    timed text tracks on video such as subtitles or captions, and adds text overlays onto video tape images.

  • Ogg Vorbis is an audio compression format, used to store and play digital music, but differs in that it is free,
    open, unpatented.  Ogg Vorbis is in the public domain, available for commercial or noncommercial usage.

  • Opus Audio Codec totally open, royalty-free, highly versatile audio codec.  Opus is unmatched for interactive
    speech and music transmission over the Internet;  Also intended for storage and streaming applications.
  • JPG (JPEG) - "Joint Photographic Experts Group"
    discards all redundant white and black pixel as
    invented to fool the eye; scaled size are 'muddy'
    no editing, no printing, no enlarging, blurs pixel,
    can reduce size, email 72dpi, phone pics 24dpi;
    phone pic 1" shows on web can not be enlarged;
    High-res compression is 60%;  Low-res is 90%;

  • PDF (definition) - "Portable Document Format"
    Made for email, media, formated document files;
    not for photo or resume, meant for portable disc;
    compressed 50% omits redundant border pixel,
    photos are less quality than TIFF, more than JPG;

  • PDF-JPG - Saved as 2-parts, 2 pop-up windows.
    This is saved as a PDF, and then saved as a JPG.
    This has 75% compression and cannot be edited.

  • PDF-ZIP - Saved as 2-parts, 2 pop-up windows.
    This is saved as a PDF, and then saves as a ZIP.
    This has 80%+ compression. For transferring files.  

  • PDF-NONE - Saved in 2 parts, 2 pop-up windows.
    This is saved as a PDF, and then saves as "NONE"
    It's saved without file compression to be edited later.
    All of these (above) have an extra window that will
    open while saving its PDF and that window asks if
    the file should be saved with compression or  NONE.
    PDF without compression is TIF, can be saved as TIF.

  • Gif/GIFF - "Graphics Interchange File Format"
    will show pixel loss, rescales on hi-res Website;
    technicians will flatten a layered graphic process;
    For professional advertising graphics ad display;

  • PNG - Portable Network Graphics (pros use this)
    originally replaced GIF, 90% compressed values;
    retains dimension, scalable, stores layer values,
    meant for first run graphic development; will not
    support CMYK, alpha RGB Web color channels

  • BMP - Bitmap Management Protocol;
    original "device independent bitmap" (DIB) pixels
    stores bitmap digital image for a graphics device;
    two-dimensional imaging, stores metafile (WMF);
    compresses 99%, saves width, height resolution;

  • PSD Photoshop Document saves edited image layers;
Common Photo File Formats

  • TIF/TIFF (Mac/PC) - "Tag Image File Format"
    since all its pixels are accounted for, it is a large file;
    this is why professionals want these files most often;
    preferred format for scanned images, document fax,
    desktop publishing, medical imaging, word process,
    optical character recognition, 3D and other graphics;
    grayscale to RBG color, can combine TIFF & JPEG;
    usually uncompressed, scalable, flexible photo pixel
    for editing, enlarging, imaging changing, printing;

  • EPS - Encapsulated PostScript for Photoshop;
  • PostScript graphic language; print capabilities;
  • CPT - Photo Paint photo editor, not for Paint Shop Pro
  • PSP - Paint Shop Pro; a lesser expensive Photoshop
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120 Photo File Format-Extensions - Compiled by a Microsoft Certified Systems Engineer
3D vector formats  (used in CAD/CAM/CAE)

  • AMF - Additive Manufacturing File Format
  • Asymptote - A language that lifts TeX to 3D.
  • .blend - a graphics blender
  • Collada COLLAbroative Design, ISO/PAS 17506
  • .dgn - graphics design system for IGDS and ISFF
  • .dwf - Design Web Format; for viewing, review, prints
  • .dwg - AutoCAD draw, stores 2D, 3D, data & metadata
  • .dxf - Drawing Exchange Format, AutoCAD data-share
  • eDrawings highly compressed 3D for email
  • .flt - FiLTer; used in Adobe Illustrator, PageMaker
  • HSF - HOOPS Stream File 3D Export Converter
  • IGES - Initial Graphics Exchange Specs for CAD
  • IMML - Immersive Media Markup Language
  • IPA - an iOS (only) archive ARM architecture app.
  • JT - 3D open CAD file format for sharing/collaboration
  • .MA (Maya ASCII format)
  • .MB (Maya Binary format)
  • .OBJ (Alias|Wavefront file format)
  • OpenGEX - Open Game Engine Exchange
  • PRC (PDB ext) eBook format, digital reading devices
  • STEP - 3D CAD interchangeable model, ISO 10303
  • SKP - 3D conceptual design software
  • STL - A stereo lithography format
  • U3D - Universal 3D file format
  • VRML - Virtual Reality Modeling Language
  • XAML - XML based user interface markup language
  • XGL - X Windows System protocol for Open GL
  • XVL - high compression for 3D lightweight graphics
  • xVRML - eXtensive Virtual Reality Modeling Language
  • X3D - XML based successor for (2001) VRML
  • .3D - native to autodesk studio DOS, 3D studio MAX
  • 3DF - highly compressed replica of original 3D model
  • .3DM - allows accurate saves of CAD, CAM, CAE;
  • .3ds - Autodesk 3D Studio
  • 3DXML - 3DVIA branded 3D proprietary XML container
  • X3D - Vector format used in 3D applications from Xara
  • OP-Atom, OP1b edtors for Avid Media Composer;
Digital Camera Formats including RAW

  • CR2/CRW2 - CANON - RAW only to Canon;
    Shoot CR2 (RAW) or shoot low res. in JPG;
    High res CR2 converts to TIFF, PDF, CRW;
    CRW in Photoshop is same as CR2 in Canon;
    CRW is very limited, utilizes images in TIFF only;
    Software engineers in a common blog agree
    that CR2, CRW, RAW are the same as TIFF;  
    RAW in 16 bit saves little space on a drive;
    TIFF in  8 bit is bulky but made for printing;
    Convert 16 bit RAW to 8 bit TIFF for printing;
  • NEF - NIKON 16 bit RAW converts to 8 bit TIFF;
  • SR2/SRF - SONY RAW, ARW(alpha-RAW)
  • ORF - OLYMPUS RAW Master-2 photo file format
  • RW2 - PANASONIC RAW native only to Panasonic
  • DNG - PENTAX RAW - DNG converts RAW in Adobe
  • DNG - CASIO - DNG converts RAW in Adobe
  • DCF  - Digital Camera Format for ACDSee/XnView
  • RAW - RAW is a compressed file in a camera;
    Printers will not print compressed RAW files;
    A 16 bit camera RAW file is compressed 50%.
    16 bit (compressed) will not print in its state;
    You need to convert RAW files to 8 bit to print;
    The printer will convert 16 bit RAW to 8 bit in Adobe.
    16 bit to 8 bit will pop-up when pressing "print".  
    TIFF as an 8 bit uncompressed will print best.
Audio-Video and Stereo Extensions and H.264

  • PCM Pulse Coded Modulation; samples audio signals;
    standard in CD's, data coded LPCM (Linear PCM);
  • AVI Audio/Video Interleave format, utilizes  
  • MOV Apple's QuickTime movie format container file;
  • AVCHD -high-definition video H.264 and Dolby AC-3
    compression packaged into MPEG formats;  Dolby AC3  is
    compressed so that PCM is better;  True HD, DTS, HD/MA,
    Atmos, and DTS-X high quality stereo surround sound.
  • MP3, MP4, M4V, MTS; MPEG formats defined as
    Moving Picture Experts Group, Standard 1, Audio Layer 3;
    Compresses audio by stripping out recorded sounds that
    are near or beyond the threshold of human hearing.
  • MKV Russia's "Matroska" - a multimedia standard for
    audio, video, subtitle files in one file format, copies MPEG3;
  • MPO Multi Picture Object format: multiple JPEG images
    for Camera & Imaging Products Association (CIPA).  
  • JPS Stereo image format consists of side-by-side images;
    compresses the file like JPEG photo formatting;  
  • PNS Portable Network Stereo format side-by-side images
    PNS takes on the PNG format, Portable Network Graphic
  • MXF - Video/Audio Standard for Sony and Panasonic;